Catalonia-Catalunya: the 11th and 12th centuries.
Introduction: Within the 10th century, the figures of Barcelona, the descendants of the legendary Guifré el Pilós (William the Bushy, No. 840-897), have been controlling the management of the varied provinces forming Catalonia. It was additionally the time when Catalonia strengthened its independence as a political power, finally breaking its ties with the Frankish kingdom north of the Pyrenees. This got here in 988 when Barcelona Borrell refused to resume his loyalty to Frank King after the Franks have been too weak to offer assistance in defending Catalonia Córdoba's powerful Muslim caliphate (al-Andalus) (when the Moors or Muslims name the land where they have been occupied).
11. Through the 20th century, Barcelona's figures, similar to Western Christians (Castile, Navarra, Aragón, León), have been expanded on the expense of their country's Muslims al-Andalus after the collapse of Córdoba's Caliphate in 1031. was primarily confined to the coastal areas of Lérida Taifa ** (LLeida, a fractional offshoot) of the bigger hurricane of Zaragoza). Castile's noble, Rodrigo or Ruy Díaz de Vivar, better often known as El Cid, who served Alfonso VI, King of Castile-Castile, Taifas had blocked an formidable company from capturing the town of Valencia in 1085. )
Five consecutive chapters, referred to as Berenguer Ramón or Ramón Berenguer, dominated the 12th century. Probably the most large of these was the Barcelona Welsh Ramón Berenguer I (r. 1035-1076).
Tomb of Ramon Berenger I: Cathedral of Barcelona
Typically, he unanimously shaped Catalonia as an essential actor within the Christian kingdoms by uniting all of the provinces of Catalonia into the Province of Barcelona and increasing the affect of Catalonia. South of France by buying a large part of Provence. He positioned a army dominant position over a number of Muslim typhoid kingdoms (Lérida / Lleida, Tortosa, Denia), and the Parisians (tribute to the cash that he had given recognition and paid for cover) he gave them the power to donate many payments to give up independence and accept his leadership. Ramón Berenguer married a French nobleman with many other Christian rulers (actually he married 3 times, each time a French noble blood lady) and inspired using the Benedictine. Liturgy in the Church As an alternative of Mozarab (ie Visigoth Liturgy).
Ramón Berenguer I, nevertheless, is remembered by most Catalan historians, regardless that all his political achievements would have produced the primary statute of the Catalan, Barcelona Usatges, in 1068. By extensively coping with sovereign regulation, feudal customs (they defined the bounds of monarch power in relation to cities and metropolis dwellers) in return for his or her loyalty), and legal and civil rights, Usatges have been typically added and didn’t turn out to be ultimate until the early 16th century. There have been main disputes in Catalan circles about what stays of the unique uses, however there’s consensus that although just a few articles may be traced on to Ramón Berenguer I, his choice to introduce issues was a big step in the new authorized system and an essential step in the direction of Catalan id. .
Purposes are thought-about one of the cornerstones that outline the distinction between Catalan and Castile feudalism. Typically, in Catalonia, men have been beneath the protection of their lord, to whom they owe respect and loyalty, vassals in different words; In Castile – quite a lot of private freedom granted in the early Fuero (charters of laws, privileges and freedoms) – males had considerable freedom. In Catalonia, the enemy who had been offended had to attraction to his master for justice; In Castile, all of the accusations have been private, inflicting the injured individual to hunt personal revenge. These two early separations present the emergence of two historic and antagonistic attributes because of the Catalans and the Castes: Catalan incline to litigation, Castile favoring private action. We see this distinction clearly of their angle **: dishonest Catalan, who requested for legal redress and litigations have been resolved by negotiation, a shameful Castilian needed revenge. (** A personal tribute is among the most necessary themes of the Spanish Golden Age drama, the primary characters are all the time Castilians, as are most writers. It was a theme that was not captured in Catalonia.) 19659002 The predatory pricing of Batallador's Aragon and the imperial objectives of Lefon-Kastilian Alfonso VI and his family of Alfonso VII. For the primary time, a way of widespread id might be detected by the expression "Catalonia", the essential city of Tarragona was conquered (1099), and extra marriages had taken place in Provence. The greatest danger for Catalonia in the mean time was the potential alliance of its powerful Christian neighbors, Castile and Aragon, however the uncommon state of affairs truly gave rise to an sudden twist: the merger between Catalonia and Aragon
its kingdom in three military-religious order: temples, hospitals and holy grave. Aragon's nobles who proclaimed Alfonson's brother Ramiron instantly condemned this eccentric testomony as soon because the monk and bishop have been elected – king. To complicate many issues, Castile Alfonso VII (r. 1126-57) also claimed the throne and supported this by marching to the good military of Zaragoza
by Petron and Ramón Berenger IV.
Ramiro managed to negotiate for himself, married a French princess and then annoyed Alfonso VII by redeeming her two-year-old daughter Petronilla and her kingdom on the Ramón Berenguer IV in Barcelona in 1137 (they married in 1150). At this point, Ramiro returned to his monastery and Ramón Berenguer IV turned the ruler of the brand new political entity: Aragon-Catalonia. The identify given to the new unit was the crown of Aragón, although Ramón Berenguer referred to as himself the Barcelona Rely (when requested why he was stated to be "the least number of kings, but the greatest number" (Eaude 50).
in every revisministic terminology, as most Catalans choose it as the kingdom of Catalonia and Aragon or as the Confederation of Catalonia-Aragon. the place the golden age of medieval Catalan history – the 13th and 14th centuries – will belong to Aragon's history: as if this were not sufficient salt for these historic wounds, the Catalans also worry that the names of the later rulers can be Aragone: Alfonso, Pedro, and so on. are out of Ramón, Beren guer, Guifré. And just a little more salt… non-Catalan historians use the Aragonese chronology within the numbering of kings, so the inheritor of Ramón Berenguer IV and Petronilla is Alfonso II, whereas for Catalans he’s Alfons I.
Aragón merger and Catalonia in 1137 there have been some circumstances suggesting that the Aragonians admit that they have been truly a smaller companion: eg they needed to argue that their customs, privileges (fuerot) and establishments have been preserved. This was undoubtedly better for the Aragonian nobility than a potential various for the Union with a much stronger Castile. Nevertheless, the Union with Catalonia was not a "living happy ever" concern; conflicts have been typically conflicting. For example, the Aragon, which is an inland group, didn’t all the time help the Catalan marine goals, and the shut neighbors of Castile typically felt the attraction of larger kingdoms, especially once they saw their interests in the Catalan region. Marriage was in many ways more pleasant than mutual admiration
The crown of Aragon, other Christian kingdoms and al-Andalus ca. 1150
The new crown started nicely when Ramón Berenguer IV conquered Tortosa (1148) and Lérida (LLeida 1149) and strengthened Catalonia's management of Provence. His successor (Alfons I r. 1162-96) added his baby by taking the cities of Casp and Teruel, however the grandson of Ramón Berenguer IV, Pere I (Pedro II Aragon r 1196-1213), found himself entangled in a spiritual battle that ultimately value him within the south of Catalonia. It was a time when the famous controversy of Albigensia broke out in the south of France, and it included quite a lot of events: the pope, the king of France, Toulouse and Catalonia. The Albigenians or most of the Cathars have been the heretics who taught that the matter was evil and that Christ did not actually take the start or dying of man. To answer this heresy, the Pope requested for a campaign, a telephone name that was answered by King Philippe Auguste of France, for less spiritual causes than the potential for expanding the dominion to the Mediterranean. The person who led the northern barons and accused the world of cleansing up was ruthless and formidable Simon de Montford, who in 1208 released a greater than 60 years of merciless warfare towards the albigensians. At the similar time, Pere I (Pedro II from Aragón) took part in a central campaign towards Almohade in the Battle of Navas de Tolosa (1212) and initially sought to discover a peaceful answer. His choice to go to the county of Toulouse (to which he was married) did not solely result in his dying in the Battle of Muret in 1213; Barcelona 1967
Carrasco, Juan et al Historia de Las Españas Medievales Barcelona 2002,
Eaude, Michael Catalonia: Cultural History Oxford UP 2008.
Hughes, Robert Barcelona New York 1992
Mestre I Godes, Jesús Breu history de Catalunya Barcelona 1998.
Photograph: Petronilla and Ramón Berenguer IV: https: //en.wikipedia .org / wiki / Petronilla_of_Aragon
Image of Ramón Berenguer I: Didier Descouens – Personal work, CC BY- SA 4.zero, https: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ramon_Berenguer_I,_Count_of_Barcelona